Saturday, 24 April 2010

John Loeffler Steel on Steel The storm thats coming-Earth Day- Mediterranean Union.

Earth Day Hype

This week marked the 15th anniversary of the tragic bombing of the Murrah Office building in Oklahoma City.

President Clinton said the atmosphere of hate in the country is identical now to what it was just prior to that terrorist event. So John's extended boralogue examines the parallels between then and now, as well as those things that are different, especially by noting what President Clinton said back then. 

This week also marked the annual observance of Earth Day. Unfortunately much of the environmental information peddled in schools during Earth Day is more political hype than scientific fact. 

But what happens when informed parents object? Carrie Lukas joins us from the Independent Women's Forum ( 

We've had a listener request to cover the progress of the Mediterranean Union and how this relates to both the European Union and the nation of Israel. Harold Hoffman ( in the UK has been monitoring this situation and fills us in.

At end of this article Some of  the References of Harold Hoffman's Views.


UNESCO: Its purpose and Its Philosophy

by Julian HuxleyFirst Director-General of UNESCO

(Washington DC: Public Affairs Press, 1947)

Skip down to The Cosmic evolution of Teilhard deChardin

Quotes and Excerpts

Skip down to

The Synthesis

of  opposites



"Unesco [UN Educational, Social and Scientific Organization] also can and should promote the growth of international contacts, international organizations, and actual international achievements, which will offer increasing resistance to the forces making for division and conflict. In particular, it can both on its own and in close relation with other UN agencies such as the FAO [Food & Agriculture Organization] and WHO [World Health Organization], promote the international application of science to human welfare. As the benefits of such world-scale collaboration becomes plain (which will be speedily be the case in relation to the food and health of mankind) it will become increasingly more difficult for any nation to destroy them by resorting to isolationism or to war." Page 14. [See The UN Plan for Food and Land]

"Further, since the world today is in process of becoming one, and since a major aim of Unesco must be to help in the speedy and satisfactory realization of this process... Unesco must pay special attention to international education - to education as a function of a world society, in addition to its function in relation to national societies, to regional or religious or intellectual groups or to local communities." p. 29-30

"The fact has also been emphasized by the development of intelligence testing, some authorities in this field going so far as to assert that only 10-20% of the population are capable of profiting by a university course."  p. 29-32

"...peace must therefore be founded, if it is not to fail, upon the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind." p. 5

"In the forefront is set Unesco's collaboration in the work of advancing the mutual knowledge and understanding of peoples, through all means of mass-communication." p. 6

"It must be an evolutionary as opposed to a static or ideal humanism....  In the last few decades, it has been possible to develop an extended or general theory of evolution which can prove the necessary intellectual scaffolding for humanism...." p. 7  [See the last part of Saving the Earth]

"In addition, we now know much about the biological evolution, the existence of several types of selection... the evolutionary conflict between the limitations set by an organism's nature and past history and the requirement of the present, and its solution by means of some new adjustment.... This last point immediately recalls the thesis, antithesis and synthesis of Hegelian philosophy, and the Marxist 'reconciliation of opposites' based on it. Indeed, dialectical materialism was the first radical attempt at an evolutionary philosophy. Unfortunately, it was based too exclusively upon principles of social as against biological evolution." p. 11

"...a priori reasoning is inadequate to arrive at truth.... truth is never complete and explanations never fully or eternally valid. On the other hand, the scientific method... leads steadily to more truth, both in the quantitative sense of a greater amount of truth as well as qualitative sense of the accurate and more complete truth." p. 36

"...taking the techniques of persuasion and information and true propaganda that we have learnt to apply nationally in war, and deliberately bending them to the international tasks of peace, if necessary utilizing them -- as Lenin envisaged - to 'overcome the resistance of millions' to desirable change.

        "Using drama to reveal reality and art as the method by which, in Sir Stephen Tallent's works, 'truth becomes impressive and a living principle of action,' and aiming to produce concerted effort, which -- top quote Grierson once more -- needs a background of faith and a sense of destiny. This must be a mass philosophy, a mass creed, and it can never be achieved without the use of the media and of mass communication. Unesco, in the press of its detailed work, must never forget this enormous feat." p. 60

"There are thus two tasks for the Mass Media division of Unesco; the one general; the other special. The special one is to enlist the press and the radio and the cinema to the fullest extent in the service of formal and adult education, of science and learning, of art and culture. The general one is to see that these agencies are used both to contribute to mutual comprehension between nations and cultures, and also to promote the growth of a common outlook shared by all nations and cultures." p. 60

"Conclusion: ...The task before UNESCO... is to help the emergence of a single world culture with its own philosophy and background of ideas and with its own broad purpose. This is opportune, since this the first time in history that the scaffolding and the mechanisms for world unification have become available and also the first time that man has had the means... of laying a world-wide foundation for the minimum physical welfare of the entire human species. And it is necessary, for at the moment, two opposing philosophies of life confront each other from the West and from the East....

"You may categorize the two philosophies as two super-nationalisms, or as individualism versus collectivism; or as the American versus the Russian way of life, or as capitalism versus communism, or as Christianity versus Marxism.  Can these opposites be reconciled, this antithesis be resolved in a higher synthesis? I believe not only that this can happen, but that, through the inexorable dialectic of evolution, it must happen....

"In pursuing this aim, we must eschew dogma - whether it be theological dogma or Marxist dogma.... East and West will not agree on a basis of the future if they merely hurl at each other the fixed ideas of the past. For that is what dogma's are -- the crystallizations of some dominant system of thought of a particular epoch. A dogma may of course crystallize tried and valid experience; but if it be dogma, it does so in a way which is rigid, uncompromising and intolerant.... If we are to achieve progress, we must learn to uncrystalize our dogmas."  p. 61

"...society as such embodies no values comparable to those embodied in individuals; but individuals are meaningless except in relation to the community." p. 62

Additional notes and excerpts:


Bush calls for the U.S. to rejoin UNESCO: "UNESCO is often referred to as a school board for the world and, as such, it reflects the educational philosophy of its founding Director-General, biologist/humanist Julian Huxley. In his book UNESCO: Its Purpose and Its Philosophy, Huxley spills the beans.

'The task before to help the emergence of a single world culture, with its own philosophy and background of ideas, and with its own broad purposes.'

"Huxley stated that the agency would advocate 'the ultimate need for world political unity' and would condition 'all peoples with the implications of the transfer of full sovereignty from separate nations to world organization.'... UNESCO 'can do a great deal to lay the foundations on which world political unity can later be built."


"In the early 1950's, former Communist Joseph Z. Kornfeder expressed the opinion that UNESCO was comparable to a Communist Party agitation and propaganda department. He stated that such a party apparatus 'handles the strategy and method of getting at the public mind, young and old.' Huxley would lard the agency with a motley collection of Communists and fellow travelers.


"In Hamburg, Germany, 1964, Huxley chaired a UNESCO sponsored conference called the 'International Symposium on Health, Education, Sex Education and Education for Home and Family living' in which the agenda was laid out for sex education....  The conference concluded, 'Sex education should begin at an early age.'...


"Through its 'World Heritage' subsidiary, UNESCO has, incredibly, already taken over control of such U.S. landmarks as the Statue of Liberty, Yellowstone National Park, Independence Hall, and other essential parcels of sovereign U.S. property. A portion of the admission to these symbols of American freedom now goes directly to UNESCO." Chuck Morse, September 16, 2002.

From Evolutionary Humanism by Julian Huxley

(Prometheus Books, 1992; Great Minds Series) 

"Pere Teilhard de Chardin was at the same time a Jesuit Father and a distinguished paleontologist. In the Phenomenon of Man he has aimed at a threefold synthesis---of the material and physical world with the world of mind and spirit; of the past with the future; and of variety with unity, the many with the one. .... Conversely, he is able to envisage the whole of knowable reality not as a static mechanism but as a process... 202

"Pere Teilhard starts from the position that mankind in its totality is a phenomenon to be described and analyzed like any other phenomenon.... His second and perhaps most fundamental point is the absolute necessity of adopting an evolutionary point of view."... 202

"... since the evolutionary phenomena.... are processes, they can never be evaluated or even adequately described solely or mainly in terms of their origins: they must be defined by their direction, their inherent possibilities....and their deducible future trends. He quotes with approval Nietzsche'sview that man is unfinished and must be surpassed or completed; and proceeds to deduce the steps needed for this completion."203

"...perhaps because he was so deeply concerned with establishing a global unification of human awareness as a necessary prerequisite for any real future progress of mankind... he did not discuss the evolutionary values of cultural variety in any detail." 204

"He seeks to link the evolution of mind with the concept of... energy in the physicists' sense, measurable or calculable by physical methods, and 'psychic energy' which increases with the complexity of organized unity."206

"In the process of convergence and coalescence, what we may metaphorically describe as the psychosocial, temperature rises. Mankind as a whole will accordingly achieve... more integrated mental activity.....
      "Teilhard was a strong visualizer. He saw with his mind's eye that 'the banal fact of the earth's roundness'--the sphericity of man's environment -- was bound to cause this intensification of psychosocial activity.....
      "Years later, when at the U of Californian in 1952, this same vivid imagination led Pere Teilhard to draw a parallel between the cyclotron generating immense intensities of physical energy.... and the entire noosphere with its fields of thought curved round upon themselves to generate new levels of 'psychical energy.'" 

"His position in France became increasingly difficult, and in 1951 he moved his headquarters to New York., in 1954, I had the privilege of working with him. ...  He has .helped both to clarify and to unify of vision of reality." 215

"The condition of advance are these:

  • global unity of mankind's noetic organization or system of awareness, but a high degree of variety within that unity;
  • love, with goodwill and full co-operation;
  • personal integration and internal harmony; and
  • increasing knowledge. ...

"We, mankind, contain the possibilities of the earth's immense future, and can realize more and more of them on condition that we increase our knowledge and our love. That, it seems to me, is the distillation of The Phenomenon of Man." 216-217

Background and articles on site of the Mediterranean Union.

Union for the Mediterranean

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Members of the Union for the Mediterranean[1]

      Members of the European Union      Other members                     Observer members

Administrative centreBarcelonaSpain[2]
 - Co-presidencyEgypt Egypt
France France
 - Total12,358,770 km2 
4,771,748 sq mi 

The Union for the Mediterranean (FrenchUnion pour la MéditerranéeItalianUnione per il MediterraneoSpanishUnión para el MediterráneoArabicالإتحاد من أجل المتوسط‎), officially known by the full name of Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean (BP:UfM)[3]and previously known as the "Mediterranean Union"[4], is a community initiated on 13 July 2008 by French President Nicolas Sarkozy.[5][6] It is a new formulation of the existing (since 1995) Euromediterranean Partnership, also known as the Barcelona Process. The act unitesall EU members with several non-EU countries that border the Mediterranean Sea. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in BarcelonaSpain.



[edit]Institutions and aims

The former Royal Palace of Pedralbes (Barcelona), headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean

[edit]Euro-Mediterranean Regional and Local Assembly (ARLEM)

More than 80 locally elected representatives and 43 partners of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) are being brought together in Barcelona by the Committee of the Regions(CoR) on January 21, 2010, for the first meeting of the Euro-Mediterranean Regional and Local Assembly (ARLEM). The meeting takes place at the seat of the Union for the Mediterranean, the Pedralbes Palace in Barcelona.[7]

The Assembly provides a new institutional framework within the Union for the Mediterranean, with a permanent platform bringing together members of the CoR, representatives of European institutions involved in Euro-Mediterranean Cooperation and their counterparts from the Mediterranean partner countries.

The aim is to strengthen cooperation between local and regional authorities around the Mediterranean in order to give the relationship a territorial dimension beyond its existing parliamentary dimension within the Barcelona Process.

The ARLEM meeting will see the election of two co-presidents for the new institution. The Assembly consists of equal numbers of local and regional representatives from EU Member States and countries of the Mediterranean rim.[7]


Members would form a regular council under a rotating presidency.

The Mediterranean and European Unions would work together and share some institutions, including a common judicial area.

The Mediterranean Union would be a looser grouping than the EU. Sarkozy called on the Mediterranean people to "do the same thing, with the same goal and the same method" as the European Union, though he stated it would not be based on the EU model.[8]


The predecessor to the Union for the Mediterranean, the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership was seen as a failure by some, because it included all EU members, which is considered to have distracted from focusing on purely Mediterranean issues.

In the immediate aftermath of the establishment of the Union for the Mediterranean at the July 2008 Paris Summit, the CoR submitted a proposal to the Heads of State and Government for the creation, in the form of a Euro-Mediterranean Regional and Local Assembly, of a territorial dimension to the partnership. This proposal was promoted and supported by partner countries and approved at the Marseille meeting of Euro-Mediterranean Foreign Ministers in November 2008.[7]


French President Nicolas Sarkozyproposed the Union during his election campaign.

The proposal was originally made as part of Sarkozy's election campaign.[9][10][11] Following his electoral victory, the idea was reiterated, with plans being drawn up.[12][13] Despite the potential division it could cause to the Middle East, with part being united with Europe, and part separated, President Sarkozy saw the initiative as a way of promoting peace between Israeland its Muslim neighbours.[12] It was hoped that an institutional core will be established by the end of the French presidency of the European Union in 2008.[14] On 23 October 2007 Sarkozy invited all Mediterranean leaders to a summit in France to take place in June 2008 where they would "lay the foundations of a political, economic and cultural union founded on the principles of strict equality."[8]

Criticism of the proposal at these early stages included concern about the relationship between the proposed MU and the existing Euromediterranean Partnership, which might reduce the effectiveness of EU policies in the region and allow the southern countries to play on the rivalries to escape unpopular EU policies. There were similar economic concerns in the loss ofcivil society and similar human rights based policies. Duplication of policies from the EU'spolice and judicial area was a further worry.[15]

The idea was originally proposed as an alternative to Turkish membership in the European Union, whereby Turkey would instead form the backbone of the new Mediterranean Union.[16]However, with modifications to the plan in March 2008, membership was no longer seen as an alternative to joining the European Union, and instead considered more as a stepping stone into the EU. Once Turkey was given a guarantee in March 2008 that the project would not be an alternative to Turkish EU membership, it accepted the invitation to participate.


At the start of 2008 Sarkozy began to modify his plans for the Mediterranean Union due to widespread opposition from other states in the EU and the Commission (see "Reactions" below).[17] At the end of February of that year France's minister for European affairs, Jean-Pierre Jouyet, stated that "there is no Mediterranean Union" but rather a "Union for the Mediterranean" which would only be "completing and enriching" to existing EU structures and policy in the region.[4] Following a meeting with German Chancellor Angela Merkel it was agreed that the project would include all EU member states, not just those bordering the Mediterranean, and built upon the existing Barcelona process. Turkey also agreed to take part in the project following a guarantee from France that it was no longer intended as an alternative to EU membership. The UM was launched on the 13–14 July 2008.[6]

When the project was modified in 2008, many proposals were dropped, such as a Mediterranean Investment Bank (modeled on itsEuropean counterpart).[12] Instead it would focus on more practical projects.[18] The original "Mediterranean Union", which would have included only Mediterranean states, was hoped to avoid this situation by having a clearer direction. However, when the Mediterranean Union was modified to become the Union for the Mediterranean, it was decided that all EU members would be involved.[5][12][13]


The common judicial area is used to fight corruptionterrorismorganised crime and people smuggling.

Main focus of the Union for the Mediterranean is to deal with energysecuritycounter-terrorismimmigration and trade. French nuclear power expertise would be exchanged for North African gas reserves.

The Mediterranean Solar Plan is a project of Union for the Mediterranean to install concentrating solar power in the deserts.[19]


The Union consists of all the EU states and those 21 countries on the Mediterranean rim or those which are participating in theEuromediterranean Partnership.[6] The idea is to form economic/political connections between EuropeNorth Africa, and the Middle East.[12]

The original proposals would have excluded the EU states not bordering the Mediterranean and only include the 21 Mediterranean Countries who share many aspect ethnically, culturally...etc. .[20] All other EU states apart from France, Spain, Italy, Slovenia, Malta, Greece, and Cyprus, would have been silent observers[8] which angered those countries who would not be involved, such as Germany, as it did not approve of EU funds being used in a project over which it had no influence.[6][17]

to the Mediterranean Sea↓
Arab League AlgeriaAlgeria33,333,2162,381,740Yes
European Union AustriaAustria8,316,48783,871No
European Union BelgiumBelgium10,584,53430,528No
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina4,448,50051,197Yes
European Union BulgariaBulgaria7,679,290110,912No
CroatiaCroatia[nb 1]4,653,50056,542Yes
European Union CyprusCyprus766,4009,251Yes
European Union Czech RepublicCzech Republic10,306,70978,866No
European Union DenmarkDenmark5,457,41543,094No
Arab League EgyptEgypt77,420,0001,002,450Yes
European Union EstoniaEstonia1,342,40945,226No
European Union FinlandFinland5,289,128338,145No
European Union FranceFrance63,392,140674,843Yes
European Union GermanyGermany82,314,906357,050No
European Union GreeceGreece11,125,179131,990Yes
European Union HungaryHungary10,066,15893,030No
European Union Republic of IrelandIreland4,239,84870,273No
European Union ItalyItaly59,131,287301,318Yes
Arab League JordanJordan5,924,00089,342No
European Union LatviaLatvia2,281,30564,589No
Arab League LebanonLebanon4,099,00010,452Yes
European Union LithuaniaLithuania3,373,99165,303No
European Union LuxembourgLuxembourg476,2002,586No
European Union MaltaMalta404,962316Yes
Arab League MauritaniaMauritania3,069,0001,030,700No
Arab League MoroccoMorocco33,757,175446,550Yes
European Union NetherlandsNetherlands16,372,71541,526No
Arab League Palestinian National AuthorityPalestinian National Authority[nb 2]3,800,0006,020Yes
European Union PolandPoland38,116,486312,683No
European Union PortugalPortugal10,599,09592,391No
European Union RomaniaRomania21,565,119238,391No
European Union SlovakiaSlovakia5,396,16849,037No
European Union SloveniaSlovenia2,013,59720,273Yes
European Union SpainSpain45,116,894506,030Yes
European Union SwedenSweden9,142,817449,964No
Arab League SyriaSyria21,906,000185,180Yes
Arab League TunisiaTunisia10,102,000163,610Yes
TurkeyTurkey[nb 1]70,586,256783,562Yes
European Union United KingdomUnited Kingdom62,587,300244,820Yes[nb 3]
FlagState with observer statusPopulationArea
Access to the Mediterranean Sea
Arab League LibyaLibya6,036,9141,759,540Yes


[edit]European Union

The project is supported by Italy[20], Spain,[21] and Greece.[22] However the EU itself and Germany have been more cautious about the idea: The European Commission has stated that such initiatives promoting regional co-operation are "good", however they say the project should build on existing structures. That was in reference to the Barcelona process which the Commission noted as being "successful". It fears Sarkozy's project would undermine the work of the Barcelona process. The Commission and EU capitals would like to know more about the details of the project.[8][23]

Sarkozy angered the Maltese government when, outlining his proposal of a Mediterranean Union in Toulon during his 2007 presidential election campaign, he listed France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus as potential members of the new entity but neglected to mention Malta. The Maltese Ambassador to France wrote to Sarkozy expressing the Maltese government’s regret at his mistake. She also reminded the then UMP Presidential candidate about Malta’s role in hosting the Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly. For his part, Sarkozy immediately wrote back to apologise, reaffirming his opinion of Malta's importance in the Mediterranean region. As Minister for the Interior, Sarkozy immediately tried to make up by inviting Malta to the Frontex Exercise, paying all the expenses tied to Malta’s participation.[24]

[edit]Arab League

On 12 July 2008, the Arab states held a small meeting in Paris with the Arab Secretary-General to discuss some proposals related to the MU articles and acts. The Arab League's official reaction to the Union was sceptical. Secretary-General Amr Moussa suggested that regional problems in the Middle East must be considered before any form of the Mediterranean Union could proceed; for example the creation of the Middle East as a Nuclear weapons free zone, including nations such as Israel and Iran. Calls were also made for Israel to apply and respond to rulings under international laws against the country, such as about 70 UN resolutions in the past 60 years.

A summit held on 13 July in Paris served to launch the Union officially. It was hosted by Sarkozy and attended by the heads of government of 43 states, excepting the king of Jordan, who sent senior representatives[25]. Press reports underlined the "love" at the meeting, as it made sit in the same room leaders as Bashar AssadEhud Olmert and Mahmud Abbas[26]

[edit]East Mediterranean

During the French president's visit to Lebanon, the Lebanese president Michel Suleiman announced publicly that Lebanon supports the proposed union.

Israeli president Shimon Peres views Sarkozy's suggestion very positively,[27] but Turkey rejected the proposal as an alternative to EU membership.[13] When Turkey was offered a guarantee in March 2008 that it would not be an alternative to the EU, Turkey accepted the invitation to participate.[6]Egypt was a major supporter to the project from the beginning. It is the first and current president of the union. Egypt was not pleased with Germany's rejections.[citation needed]


Frank-Walter SteinmeierGerman Minister of Foreign Affairs, gave a cautious response to the initiative and emphasized that it should not compete with the EU or the Barcelona process.[28] In December 2007, German chancellor Angela Merkel criticised Sarkozy's plans, saying that they risked splitting and threatening the core of the EU. In particular she criticised that just a small number of EU countries, excluding the others, would form the union with EU funds, stating that "this could release explosive forces in the union I would not like."[23] When Slovenia took the EU presidency in 2008, Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Janša added to the criticism stating: "We do not need a duplication of institutions, or institutions that would compete with EU, institutions that would cover part of the EU and part of the neighbourhood."[29]


In response to criticism from his European partners, Sarkozy modified his original plans for the union. Disagreements with Germany led to a mini summit between the two leaders being delayed three months until June 2008, however Sarkozy still plans to hold a summit on 13 July involving the relevant EU states and the southern countries. This angered many EU countries outside as the rest of the EU would only be invited the day after to sign off the deal.[17]

[edit]See also


  1. a b Croatia and Turkey are both official candidates for EU membership, and participate in the UfM due to both countries having access to the Mediterranean Sea.
  2. ^ The PNA is a non-sovereign administrative organisation, with limited control over the Palestinian territories.
  3. ^ The United Kingdom does not have access to the Mediterranean Sea, but the British overseas territory of Gibraltar is located in the Mediterranean and it is part of the European Union. The two Sovereign Base Areas on the island of Cyprus also have access to the Mediterranean, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, but are not part of the EU and have a special relationship with the European Union.


  1. ^ Mediterranean union launched with Mideast peace hopesAgence France Presse, 13 July 2008
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. a b Vucheva, Elitsa (27 February 2008) France says it has no preferred EU president candidate, EU Observer. For further reading, see also: Tausch, Arno (2005, Editor, with Peter Herrmann) '‘Dar al Islam. The Mediterranean, the World System and the Wider Europe. 2 v. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers. Abridged paperback ed., 2006, as “The West, Europe and the Muslim World” (Vol. 1) and “Towards a Wider Europe” (Vol. 2)
  5. a b Sarkozy sounds out basis for Mediterranean Union 16 July 2007. Accessed 19 July 2007.
  6. a b c d e Turkey, reassured on EU, backs 'Club Med' planThe Guardian 4 March 2008
  7. a b c Union for the Mediterranean brings Euro-Med local authorities together for ARLEM inaugural meeting
  8. a b c d Goldirova, Renata (25 October 2007) France muddies waters with 'Mediterranean Union' idea, EU Observer
  9. ^ Sparks Expected to Fly Whoever Becomes France's President DW World 13 February 2007
  10. ^ Royal v Sarkozy: The policies BBC News 15 February 2007
  11. ^ Roundup: French presidential hopeful Sarkozy presents vision on foreign policy People's Daily 2 March 2007
  12. a b c d e Sarkozy's proposal for Mediterranean bloc makes waves International Herald Tribune 10 May 2007
  13. a b c Turkey angered by Sarkozy 'Mediterranean Union' idea EU Observer 18 May 2007
  14. ^ We are ready to create a Mediterranean Union Le Figaro 31 May 2007
  15. ^ Behr, Timo and Ruth Hanau Santini (12 November 2007) Comment: Sarkozy's Mediterranean union plans should worry Brussels, EU Observer
  16. ^ Sarkozy: "Turkey could be the backbone of a Mediterranean Union" Turkish Press Review 8 February 2007
  17. a b c Mahony, Honor (25 February 2008) Franco-German summit postponed amidst speculation of rift, EU Observer
  18. ^ Balmer, Crispian (4 March 2008) Sarkozy's Med dream deflated by GermanyReuters
  19. ^
  20. a b Mediterranean Union project is core of Franco-Italian Abhaber (on Google Caché) 01/06/07[dead link]
  21. ^ Spanish PM backs French plan for 'Mediterranean Union' French News 31 May 2007
  22. ^ Sarkozy Karamanlis talks
  23. a b Mahony, Honor (6 December 2007) Merkel criticises Sarkozy's Mediterranean Union plans, EU Observer
  24. ^ MaltaToday
  25. ^ AFP, July 13th, 2008
  26. ^ The Guardian, July 14th, 2008
  27. ^ Mediterranean Union: EJP 7 May 2007
  28. ^ Germany cautious on Sarkozy's Mediterranean bloc plan, EU Business, July 5, 2007
  29. ^ Keller, Caroline (17 January 2008) Slovenia criticises French Mediterranean Union proposal, EU Observer

[edit]External links


Search Results

  1. Union for the Mediterranean - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Union for the Mediterranean (French: Union pour la Méditerranée, Italian: Unione per il Mediterraneo, Spanish: Unión para el Mediterráneo, ... - Cached - Similar
  2. BBC NEWS | Europe | Mediterranean union is launched

    13 Jul 2008 ... French President Nicolas Sarkozy launches a Union for the Mediterranean, aimed at ending Mid-East conflict. - Cached - Similar
  3. What Is Really Behind the Mediterranean Union? | The Brussels Journal

    12 Mar 2008 ... Sarkozy originally came up with the idea of a Mediterranean Union during his campaign in 2007 to become president. ... - Cached - Similar
  4. Video results for mediterranean union

    43 Nations Form HistoricMediterranean Union
    1 min 16 sec - 13 Jul 2008
  5. European Union (EU) and The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    European Commission - external relations: Euromed. - Cached - Similar
  6. AFP: Jordanian takes charge of Mediterranean Union

    4 Mar 2010 ... BARCELONA — The first head of the new Mediterranean Union, Jordan's Ahmad Masa' deh, pledged to "promote growth and security" in the region ...
  7. Sarkozy's proposal for Mediterranean bloc makes waves - The New ...

    10 May 2007 ... "The time has come to build together a Mediterranean Union that will be the bridge between Europe and Africa," Sarkozy said in his victory ... - Cached - Similar
  8. Mediterranean Union

    The French project of the Mediterranean Union (Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean later, and now Union for the Mediterranean) was launched by ... - Cached - Similar
  9. Post-Traumatic » » MEDITERRANEAN UNION

    26 Nov 2009 ... Even bearing in mind Sarkozy's geopolitical ambition and nostalgia for empire – the idea of a Mediterranean Union is a startling one in that ... - Cached
  10. [PDF] 

    Putting the Mediterranean Union in Perspective

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
    by R Aliboni - 2008 - Cited by 16 - Related articles
    of the Mediterranean Union proposal and examining the reactions it ... Can the project of a “Mediterranean Union”, as initially proposed by the then ... - Similar
  11. Palestine - Mediterranean Union Misses Making Its Mark ...

    23 Feb 2010 ... An International Meeting in support of Israeli- Palestinian Peace was organized by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean Union and ... - Cached

Apr 06, 2010
... intended to disseminate and establish it throughout the member-states of the European Union. It is known as the Mediterranean Partnership since the Barcelona Declaration of 1995, which included Israel after the Oslo agreements. ...
Aug 05, 2008
Libya's Colonel Gaddafi has repeated his opposition to the French-ledMediterranean Union idea, saying it would separate north Saharan countries from the African Union, during a visit to Tunis on Monday. He said: "I do not agree to ...
Apr 10, 2010
ITALY-FRANCE: TOGETHER TO RE-LAUNCH MED UNION (ANSAmed) - PARIS, APRIL 9 - "France and Italy reaffirm their commitment to the Union for the Mediterranean" and "together with the EU's Spanish presidency they'll do whatever needed for the ...
Oct 23, 2008
She went on to say: "Britain is an island nation, but our instinct is international - we shop at European fashion shops, we eat at pizzerias, we holiday on theMediterranean. So why do people distrust the European Union and feel distant ...